- Plural of doctrine
- Plural of doctrine
Doctrine (Latin: doctrina) is a code of beliefs or "a body of teachings" or "instructions", taught principles or positions, as the body of teachings in a branch of knowledge or belief system. The Greek analogy is the etymology of catechism.
Often doctrine specifically connotes a corpus of religious dogma as it is promulgated by a church, but not necessarily: doctrine is also used to refer to a principle of law, in the common law traditions, established through a history of past decisions, such as the doctrine of self-defense, or the principle of fair use, or the more narrowly applicable first-sale doctrine.
Foreign policy of Doctrine
In matters of foreign policy, a doctrine, also known as dogma, is a body of axioms fundamental to the exercise of a nation's foreign policy. Hence, doctrine, in this sense, has come to suggest a broad consistency that holds true across a spectrum of acts and actions. Doctrines of this sort are almost always presented as the personal creations of one particular political leader, whom they are named after. Examples include the Monroe Doctrine, the Stimson Doctrine, the Truman Doctrine, the Eisenhower Doctrine, the Nixon Doctrine, the Brezhnev Doctrine, the Kirkpatrick doctrine, the McCain Doctrine.
Examples of religious doctrines include:
The term also applies to the concept of an established procedure to a complex operation in warfare. The typical example is tactical doctrine in which a standard set of maneuvers, kinds of troops and weapons are employed as a default approach to a kind of attack.
Examples of military doctrines include:
Almost every military organization has its own doctrine. Sometimes written, sometimes unwritten.
A legal doctrine is a body of inter-related rules (usually of common law and built over a long period of time) associated with a legal concept or principle. For example the doctrine of frustration of purpose now has many tests and rules applicable with regards to each other and can be contained within a 'bubble' of Frustration. In a court session a defendant may refer to the doctrine of justification.
It can be seen that a branch of law contains various doctrine, which in turn contains various rules or tests. The test of Non-occurrence of crucial event is part of the doctrine of Frustration which is part of Contract Law. Doctrines can grow into a branch of law; restitution is now considered a branch of law separate to Contract and Tort.
The term indoctrination came to have awkward connotations during the 20th century, but it is necessary to retain it, in order to distinguish it from education. In education one is asked to stand as much as possible outside the body of accumulated knowledge and analyze it. In indoctrination on the other hand, one stands within the body of knowledge and absorbs its teachings. Compare theology and comparative religion for examples, of which many could be drawn.
doctrines in Catalan: Doctrina
doctrines in Czech: Doktrína
doctrines in Danish: Doktrin
doctrines in German: Doktrin
doctrines in Estonian: Doktriin
doctrines in Spanish: Doctrina
doctrines in Persian: دکترین
doctrines in French: Doctrine
doctrines in Croatian: Doktrina
doctrines in Interlingua (International Auxiliary Language Association): Doctrina
doctrines in Georgian: დოქტრინა
doctrines in Lithuanian: Teisės doktrina
doctrines in Dutch: Doctrine
doctrines in Japanese: ドクトリン
doctrines in Norwegian: Doktrine
doctrines in Norwegian Nynorsk: Doktrine
doctrines in Polish: Doktryna
doctrines in Portuguese: Doutrina
doctrines in Romanian: Doctrină
doctrines in Russian: Доктрина
doctrines in Simple English: Doctrine
doctrines in Slovak: Doktrína
doctrines in Finnish: Doktriini
doctrines in Swedish: Doktrin
doctrines in Thai: ลัทธิ